The Geological Survey of India, the premier Earth Science Organisation in the sub-continent, has covered almost all accessible parts of the Indian subcontinent by systematic geological mapping and through other specialized geoscientific activities. Dissemination of this knowledge is done through different publications, reports, maps and atlases. The different categories of maps and atlases representing the whole gamut of GSI activity and catering to a wide spectrum of users are listed below.
Geological Quadrangle Maps are the basic source of information, referred frequently by academicians, government departments, planners, entrepreneurs, etc. Each map covering 1o by 1o area depicts the lithology, mineral resource, geological history and potential zones for natural hazards. This series of maps represent the most detailed geological information published till date. India is covered by 392 numbers of 1 degree x 1 degree quadrangle sheets. Out of which 300 sheets are amenable for data collection and publication on scale 1cm = 2.5 km. About 282 Geological Quadrangle Maps have been published so far.
District Resource Maps (DRM)
This series provides multithematic spatial information to the planners, for development and policy decisions on districts. The maps comprise detail geological history of the districts including mineral resources, irrigation projects, ground water resources and hazard mitigation etc. The main geological map is accompanied by inset maps depicting geomorphological, geohydrological, geotechnical and natural hazard characteristics of the district along with an explanatory note. About 250 District Resource Maps have been published so far.
Geological and Mineral Map of States and Regions (GMSR)
These series of maps normally comprise detail geological history of the states along with mineral resource information. Each map is accompanied by an explanatory brochure.
Maps covering entire India are available on different themes such as geology, geomorphology, tectonics, metallogeny etc. Some of these maps are accompanied by an explanatory brochure and are generally printed at scales 1: 2 million or 1: 5 million.
Coalfield maps portray the tectonic and sedimentological domains of the area / basin with location of boreholes and alignment of regional coal seams. Marginal information include stratigraphy, lithology and borehole sections
Marine maps of Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and territorial water of India display the surficial sediment distribution in a 2o by 2o format. This series of maps also show bathymetry, sample location, offshore mineral resource potential, deep borehole logs accompanied by magnetic anomaly maps, seismological section, etc.
Mineral belt Maps
Geology of important and promising mineral belts are depicted in these maps. This series of maps are targeted primarily towards mining sector entrepreneurs. These maps are published at a scale 1:50,000 and can be used for planning of exploration targets.
This series of maps depict information about geology, mineral and tectonics of Southeast Asia, Bhutan and some parts of Antarctica. Basic purpose of the maps is dissemination of geological knowledge about the surrounding regions and is targeted towards all interested users.
Geological Survey of India has published few Atlases on themes like seismotectonics and mineral resources. These atlases comprise several sheets which depict compiled multi-thematic information which are results of years of scientific survey and research.
SOME IMPORTANT MAPS PUBLISHED BY GSI
Geological map of India (1:5 / 1:2 million)
This map depicts the standardized stratigraphic classification and correlation of lithostratigraphic units of India. Major rock units are clubbed under geological Formations / Groups. The Formations and Groups have been represented by distinctive colour following the CGMW standard, indicating different geological ages. This standardized authenticated geological map is the basic source of information for geoscientists, different user agencies and academicians.
Tectonic Map of India and adjoining countries (1: 7.5 million)
The map provides a coherent view of broad tectonic elements of India (e.g. faults, shear zones, thrusts etc) and its contiguous terrain comprising Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and parts of Pakistan, South China and Sumatra. The map includes magnetic anomaly, sediment thickness and location of DSDP holes in Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and part of Indian Ocean. It also incorporates one inset map of India exhibiting the contemporary/recent tectonic and geodynamic setting.
Geotechnical Map of India (1:2 million)
The map has been compiled and published for benefit of planning and locating major civil projects. The rock units have been classified into engineering geological provinces depicted by colours on which patterns have been superimposed to depict both geological and engineering properties. Besides, the map also demarcates the natural hazard prone areas as well as shows location of major river valley projects and thermal power plants.
Geomorphological Map of India (1:2 million) with brochure
India is classified into nine geomorphic landscape domains of regional dimension in this map. This map depicts the relief of India containing thematic information on morphology, morphogenesis and morphochronology of geometry, gross lithology, structural fabric, dominant morphodynamic processes and their influence.
Metallogenic map of India (1:2 million) with brochure
This map is an effort to collate and present the current status of metallogenic information, which have distinct relation to the evolution of different tectonic units. The map also presents information on the mineral resources including the geographical location, mineral association, host rock association and morphogenic signature, reserve and grade of each mineral occurrence.
Geological map of Himalaya (1: 1 million)
Himalayas occupies a large area with diverse history of sedimentation, deformation and metamorphism. The map covers entire Himalayan Range and is published in four sheets. Sheet 1 comprises states of Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab and J&K; sheet 2 consists of Nepal and sheet 3 consists of Bhutan and states of Sikkim, West Bengal and Arunachal Pradesh. The sheet 4 contains a legend with a correlation chart.
Mineral Map of India (1: 5 million)
This map provides locations of important mineral deposits with different colour symbols on a generalized geological base (nominal point symbols on a chorochromatic base). Besides, the map also includes the locations of strategic and precious minerals under investigation. The locations are numbered commodity wise and a locality index has been provided in the body of the map.
Aeromagnetic image map of Peninsular India (1 : 2 million)
The aeromagnetic image map at scale represents aeromagnetic anomaly features for the land area of Peninsular India covering a total area of 12,72,000 sq km between 8º and 25º N and longitudes 74º and 89º E prepared from the data flown at a height 7000 feet above mean sea level. The data includes all magnetic signals coming from a depth of about 25 km to those near the earth's surface.
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